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Welcome to our Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing (5th edition).This guide is compiled by the University Library, to support students, researchers and academic staff at Anglia Ruskin University. In the first part we show you how to cite a reference in the text of your assignment, in the second part we have included instructions for each of the main source types such as books or web pages. Any similarity with published work are coincidental.Any in-text reference should include the authorship and the year of the work.

Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) states that "when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works".

According to Cormack (1994, pp.32-33), writers should be encouraged to reference published research when addressing professional readership.

If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text then both the author's name and publication year are placed at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets: List these at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence, putting the author's name, followed by the date of publication and separated by a semi-colon and within brackets.

Where several publications from a number of authors are referred to, then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e.

such as Department of the Environment or Royal College of Nursing.

It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, e.g.

RCN, in your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets: 1st citation: If the author cannot be identified use 'Anonymous' or 'Anon' and the title of the work and date of publication. Every effort should be made to establish the authorship if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission: Every effort should be made to establish the year of publication if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

earliest first): If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the works are published in different years, then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e.

earliest first): If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion, or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be referred to by using lower case letters (as above): References to the work of an author that appears as a chapter, or part of a larger work, that is edited by someone else, should be cited within your text using the name of the contributory author not the editor of the whole work.

If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author then it is usually cited under the body that commissioned the work.

This applies to publications by associations, companies, government departments etc.

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