The climate varies from cold winters and mild, rainy summers in the mountains to milder winters and hot, dry summers in the rest of the country and a more Mediterranean climate near the coast. In 1991, approximately 44 percent of the people were Bosniac, 31 percent were Serb, 17 percent were Croat, 5.5 percent were Yugoslav (of mixed ethnicity), and 2.5 percent were of other ethnicities.
These regions, including the area around Sarajevo, the capital, are conducive to skiing and other winter sports and before the civil war were a popular tourist destination.
Much of the land (39 percent) is forested; only 14 percent is arable.
Most of the farmland is in the northern part of the country. estimate of the population in July 2000 was 3,835,777; however, that figure is not reliable as a result of dislocations and deaths from military activity and ethnic cleansing.
The name "Bosnia" is derived from the Bosna River, which cuts through the region.
Herzegovina takes its name from the word herceg, which designated the duke who ruled the southern part of the region until the Ottoman invasion in the fifteenth century.
The two regions are culturally indistinguishable and for much of their history have been united under one government.
Although cultural variations in Bosnia and Herzegovina are minimal, cultural identity is currently extremely divisive.
The three main groups are Muslims (Bosniacs), Serbs, and Croats.
Before the recent civil war, many areas of the country had mixed populations; now the population has become much more homogeneous in most regions. Bosnia is in southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, bordering Slovenia to the northwest, Croatia to the north, and Serbia and Montenegro to the south and southwest; it has a tiny coastline along the Adriatic Sea.
The land area is 19,741 square miles (51,129 square kilometers).
Herzegovina is the southern portion of the country; it is shaped like a triangle whose tip (surrounded by Croatia and Yugoslavia) touches the Adriatic.